A related question came up some time ago about the difficulty of earning Enthusiast and Fanatic (for consecutive days of site activity) in a Shabbat-observant community. At the time a community manager answered thus:
You're right. If we were designing this system specifically for a Jewish community, we probably would not implement the Fanatic and Enthusiast badges in its current form. But there's also the practical matter that Stack Exchange is a tool — a framework — designed for folks of varied interests to build their own site in this Q&A space.
Badges -- both definitions and names -- are consistent across the network. I seem to recall some objections here to Guru because of the word's association with another religion, and there was some early objection to Strunk & White from the English Language community (from people who think that's a poor choice of style guide). Communities currently just have to accept these quirks. If a badge name is blatantly offensive we could probably get a per-site exception, but I don't know if this reaches that threshold.
Robert went on to say (about changing the definition of a badge):
There have been scattered requests for custom badges for sites to use based on their need. But we're not there, yet. Still, the feature-request tag is the best way to suggest these changes. We regularly review feature requests to guide us in future directions. The development of Stack Exchange is driven by these feature requests, so even if this doesn't get implemented in short order, it's always under consideration.
I encourage you to think about a feature request, either a specific one here or a broader one network-wide on Meta.SE. As a seasoned Meta.SE user I offer the following suggestions if you do this:
A change that benefits the whole network is more likely to be implemented than one that benefits only one site; that would be the reason to ask on Meta.SE. On the other hand, a change that harms other sites will get lots of negative feedback on Meta.SE. So think about scope first.
If you go to Meta.SE, think about how this would work across 150+ sites. Will per-site renames, or per-site redefinitions with the original names, confuse users? If so, how would you mitigate that?
In terms of development, it's probably easier to disable something than to modify it. There is thus a tension between this point and the previous one.