I missed the deadline to award the bounty on my qusetion about tzfardeah. Is there still a way for me to award the points, or to directly give out another bounty to the answers I liked/appreciate without waiting a week?
(detailed info on how bounties work, can be found here)
Is there still a way for me to award the points
No, if you didn't choose someone to give it to, and it wasn't rewarded to anyone, it's too late for that. From meta FAQ:
If no answer meets any of the above two criteria, the bounty is not awarded to any answer, and is not refunded to the bounty starter.
(The "above criteria" is that one answer should have at least two upvotes. None of the answers have that)
or to directly give out another bounty to the answers I liked/appreciate without waiting a week
A bounty can be awarded 24 hours after starting. So you'd have to wait that amount of time, and not a full week.
Note that if you offer several bounties on the same question, you will have to double the amount each time (or more). That is, if your first bounty was worth 50 reputation, your second bounty on the same question will have to be for at least 100, your third for at least 200 and so on. If you've already offered a bounty for more than 250, you can still offer more bounties for 500 (the maximum amount) as long as you like (or as long as you have the rep). This doubling applies only to bounties by the same user on the same question.